Epee Emilienne is a Cameroonian ophthalmologist trained in Germany for undergraduates and in Zimbabwe for Masters in ophthalmology. She is currently a Senior\r\nLecturer in the Department of Ophthalmology in University of Yaounde in Cameroon and a PhD student at UKNZ in South Africa researching on ocular morbidity. Her area of interest is primary eye care.
Trachoma is one of the tropical neglected diseases. Its active form affects 84 million people worldwide and more than\r\n10 million people suffer from trichiasis. In Cameroon, North and Far North regions are affected with prevalence upto\r\n1.09%. Despite synergistic action for control and eradication of the disease programs are failing to have adequate adhesion of\r\nthe communities’ to surgical management of complications causing blindness. We aim at identifying the barriers to surgery.\r\nIn May 2014 after a surgical campaign, we undertook a descriptive qualitative and quantitative study and in the health area\r\nof Tourou. We sampled per convenience. Included were patients with trichiasis and entropion irrespective of age identified\r\nthrough the record books who refused to adhere to the surgical campaign present and available for data collection; With a pre\r\nprepared guide we had a deep interview with each patients in their homes when they consented. We included 30 participants a\r\nsex ratio of 1,7 in favor of females, They were all homemakers for females and farmers for males , living within 5to 10 km away\r\nfrom the health center, 36% had been having trichiasis and entropion for more than a year while others could not remember\r\nwhen it started. Eighty percent of cases knew what they had they had used drops or ointment seen traditional healers and had\r\nepilation for x y z cases respectively. Among the barriers came fear in 33% sociocultural beliefs rejecting surgery in 23% and\r\ntime in 13% of all cases. Lack of awareness about the benefit of surgery as management of trichiasis and entropion is the main\r\nbarrier not poverty neither access to the health center. Therefore precampaign strategies should consider communities beliefs to improve adherence to surgery.
Aim: To evaluate the performance of the color vision discrimination degree in binocular and monocular vision and comparison\r\nthe its differences either with dominant or non-dominant eye seeing in monocular condition among medical students with\r\nnormal color vision.\r\nMethods: A total of 52 students studying at Baskent University Faculty of Medicine including 33 males (63.46%) and 19\r\nfemales (36.54%) with the mean age of 21, 18±252 years (mean±SD) each of them have visual acuity of 20/20 and none of them\r\nhad congenital color vision deficiency (CCVD) were recruited for this study. Ishihara Pseudoisochromatic Plate Test (IPPT)\r\nwas used to evaluate CCVD. The color vision discrimination ability degree for the right eye (RE), left eye (LE) and both eyes\r\ntogether were examined using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM100) test. Total and local error scores were calculated.\r\nDominant eye (DE) was determined using the Gundogan Method. The total error scores (TES) from the FM100 test between the\r\nbinocular vision (BV) and monocular condition of both with DE and non-dominant eye (NDE) were compared. The presence\r\nof the binocularity and stereoscopic sensitivity (SS) were investigated using the TNO test. All participants divided into four\r\ngroups within a range of 480-60 arc/s. The statistical software; SPPS 20 (IBM Corp. Released 2011) and IBM SPSS Statistics for\r\nWindows (Version 20.0 Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) was used for calculations. All values presented as mean±standard deviation\r\nand frequencies. Repeated measures of analysis of variance were analyzed by Mauchy’s sphericity test and Box’s Test of Equality\r\nof Covariance Matrices. For comparisons of means of repeated measures Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance was used.\r\nIf parametric tests (factorial design for repeated measures analysis) dos not provide the preconditions, Greenhouse-Geisser\r\n(1959) correction or Huynh-Feldt (1976) correction was used for corrections to the Degrees of Freedom. The Corrected\r\nBonferroni test was used for multiple comparisons.\r\nResults: The color vision discrimination ability degree of all students TES of BV, DE and NDE were found 61.22±30.32, 58.80±\r\n29.92 and 68.44±31.46 respectively. The differences were no significant between each group. (p=0.189) the blue/yellow (b/y)\r\nlocal error scores of BV, DE and NDE were 35.80±19.32, 34.68±18.95 and 36.24±17.56 respectively, the differences were not\r\nstatistically significant either. (p=0.412) The red/green (r/g) local error scores of BV, DE and NDE detected were 25.42±14.65,\r\n24.12±14.70 and 32.20± 14.21. The error score of NDE was significantly higher than that of other two groups (p=0.009). Even\r\nnot sported statistically the error scores of DE were lower even than BV for each spectrum. All individuals’BV, DE and NDE\r\nFM100 test of TES were detected according to stereoscopic degree in which participant with 480 arc/s Stereoscopic Sensivity\r\n(SS) have 61.32±30.63, 59.22±29.89, 68.10±32.13, subject with 240 arc/s in SS have 61.32±30.63, 59.22±29.89, 68.10±32.13\r\nin 120 arc/s SS, 60.75±31.12, 58.48±29.77, 66.24±31.49 and with 60 arc/s SS have 61.59±30.96, 59.02±29.90, 66.15±31.85\r\nrespectively. The differences were not significant in each stereoscopic level.\r\nConclusion: In normal subjects without CCVD the color vision discrimination was lower in NDE than in both DE and in\r\nBV for each spectrum but it is only significant in R/G spectrum. According to our research result R/G spectrum is the most\r\naffected one by eye dominance. The further studies are necessary to evaluate our research results, the reason of inhibiting DE’s\r\ncolor vision discrimination ability in binocular seeing position. According to our research, FM100 tests showed no correlation\r\nin terms of mean TES with the depth perception evaluated with the test based on color perception